Java API
This documentation is for an unreleased version of Apache Paimon. We recommend you use the latest stable version.

Java API #

We do not recommend using the Paimon API naked, unless you are a professional downstream ecosystem developer, and even if you do, there will be significant difficulties.

If you are only using Paimon, we strongly recommend using computing engines such as Flink SQL or Spark SQL.

The following documents are not detailed and are for reference only.

Dependency #

Maven dependency:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.apache.paimon</groupId>
  <artifactId>paimon-bundle</artifactId>
  <version>0.8-SNAPSHOT</version>
</dependency>

Or download the jar file: Paimon Bundle.

Paimon relies on Hadoop environment, you should add hadoop classpath or bundled jar.

Create Catalog #

Before coming into contact with the Table, you need to create a Catalog.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.CatalogContext;
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.CatalogFactory;
import org.apache.paimon.fs.Path;
import org.apache.paimon.options.Options;

public class CreateCatalog {

    public static Catalog createFilesystemCatalog() {
        CatalogContext context = CatalogContext.create(new Path("..."));
        return CatalogFactory.createCatalog(context);
    }

    public static Catalog createHiveCatalog() {
        // Paimon Hive catalog relies on Hive jars
        // You should add hive classpath or hive bundled jar.
        Options options = new Options();
        options.set("warehouse", "...");
        options.set("metastore", "hive");
        options.set("uri", "...");
        options.set("hive-conf-dir", "...");
        options.set("hadoop-conf-dir", "...");
        CatalogContext context = CatalogContext.create(options);
        return CatalogFactory.createCatalog(context);
    }
}

Create Database #

You can use the catalog to create databases. The created databases are persistence in the file system.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;

public class CreateDatabase {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
            catalog.createDatabase("my_db", false);
        } catch (Catalog.DatabaseAlreadyExistException e) {
            // do something
        }
    }
}

Determine Whether Database Exists #

You can use the catalog to determine whether the database exists

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;

public class DatabaseExists {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
        boolean exists = catalog.databaseExists("my_db");
    }
}

List Databases #

You can use the catalog to list databases.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;

import java.util.List;

public class ListDatabases {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
        List<String> databases = catalog.listDatabases();
    }
}

Drop Database #

You can use the catalog to drop databases.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;

public class DropDatabase {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
            catalog.dropDatabase("my_db", false, true);
        } catch (Catalog.DatabaseNotEmptyException e) {
            // do something
        } catch (Catalog.DatabaseNotExistException e) {
            // do something
        }
    }
}

Create Table #

You can use the catalog to create tables. The created tables are persistence in the file system. Next time you can directly obtain these tables.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Identifier;
import org.apache.paimon.schema.Schema;
import org.apache.paimon.types.DataTypes;

public class CreateTable {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Schema.Builder schemaBuilder = Schema.newBuilder();
        schemaBuilder.primaryKey("f0", "f1");
        schemaBuilder.partitionKeys("f1");
        schemaBuilder.column("f0", DataTypes.STRING());
        schemaBuilder.column("f1", DataTypes.INT());
        Schema schema = schemaBuilder.build();

        Identifier identifier = Identifier.create("my_db", "my_table");
        try {
            Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
            catalog.createTable(identifier, schema, false);
        } catch (Catalog.TableAlreadyExistException e) {
            // do something
        } catch (Catalog.DatabaseNotExistException e) {
            // do something
        }
    }
}

Get Table #

The Table interface provides access to the table metadata and tools to read and write table.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Identifier;
import org.apache.paimon.table.Table;

public class GetTable {

    public static Table getTable() {
        Identifier identifier = Identifier.create("my_db", "my_table");
        try {
            Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
            return catalog.getTable(identifier);
        } catch (Catalog.TableNotExistException e) {
            // do something
            throw new RuntimeException("table not exist");
        }
    }
}

Determine Whether Table Exists #

You can use the catalog to determine whether the table exists

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Identifier;

public class TableExists {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Identifier identifier = Identifier.create("my_db", "my_table");
        Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
        boolean exists = catalog.tableExists(identifier);
    }
}

List Tables #

You can use the catalog to list tables.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;

import java.util.List;

public class ListTables {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
            List<String> tables = catalog.listTables("my_db");
        } catch (Catalog.DatabaseNotExistException e) {
            // do something
        }
    }
}

Drop Table #

You can use the catalog to drop table.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Identifier;

public class DropTable {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Identifier identifier = Identifier.create("my_db", "my_table");
        try {
            Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
            catalog.dropTable(identifier, false);
        } catch (Catalog.TableNotExistException e) {
            // do something
        }
    }
}

Rename Table #

You can use the catalog to rename a table.

import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Identifier;

public class RenameTable {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Identifier fromTableIdentifier = Identifier.create("my_db", "my_table");
        Identifier toTableIdentifier = Identifier.create("my_db", "test_table");
        try {
            Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
            catalog.renameTable(fromTableIdentifier, toTableIdentifier, false);
        } catch (Catalog.TableAlreadyExistException e) {
            // do something
        } catch (Catalog.TableNotExistException e) {
            // do something
        }
    }
}

Alter Table #

You can use the catalog to alter a table, but you need to pay attention to the following points.

  • Column %s cannot specify NOT NULL in the %s table.
  • Cannot update partition column type in the table.
  • Cannot change nullability of primary key.
  • If the type of the column is nested row type, update the column type is not supported.
  • Update column to nested row type is not supported.
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Catalog;
import org.apache.paimon.catalog.Identifier;
import org.apache.paimon.schema.Schema;
import org.apache.paimon.schema.SchemaChange;
import org.apache.paimon.types.DataField;
import org.apache.paimon.types.DataTypes;

import com.google.common.collect.Lists;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

public class AlterTable {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Identifier identifier = Identifier.create("my_db", "my_table");

        Map<String, String> options = new HashMap<>();
        options.put("bucket", "4");
        options.put("compaction.max.file-num", "40");

        Catalog catalog = CreateCatalog.createFilesystemCatalog();
        catalog.createDatabase("my_db", false);

        try {
            catalog.createTable(
                identifier,
                new Schema(
                    Lists.newArrayList(
                        new DataField(0, "col1", DataTypes.STRING(), "field1"),
                        new DataField(1, "col2", DataTypes.STRING(), "field2"),
                        new DataField(2, "col3", DataTypes.STRING(), "field3"),
                        new DataField(3, "col4", DataTypes.BIGINT(), "field4"),
                        new DataField(
                            4,
                            "col5",
                            DataTypes.ROW(
                                new DataField(
                                    5, "f1", DataTypes.STRING(), "f1"),
                                new DataField(
                                    6, "f2", DataTypes.STRING(), "f2"),
                                new DataField(
                                    7, "f3", DataTypes.STRING(), "f3")),
                            "field5"),
                        new DataField(8, "col6", DataTypes.STRING(), "field6")),
                    Lists.newArrayList("col1"), // partition keys
                    Lists.newArrayList("col1", "col2"), // primary key
                    options,
                    "table comment"),
                false);
        } catch (Catalog.TableAlreadyExistException e) {
            // do something
        } catch (Catalog.DatabaseNotExistException e) {
            // do something
        }

        // add option
        SchemaChange addOption = SchemaChange.setOption("snapshot.time-retained", "2h");
        // remove option
        SchemaChange removeOption = SchemaChange.removeOption("compaction.max.file-num");
        // add column
        SchemaChange addColumn = SchemaChange.addColumn("col1_after", DataTypes.STRING());
        // add a column after col1
        SchemaChange.Move after = SchemaChange.Move.after("col1_after", "col1");
        SchemaChange addColumnAfterField =
            SchemaChange.addColumn("col7", DataTypes.STRING(), "", after);
        // rename column
        SchemaChange renameColumn = SchemaChange.renameColumn("col3", "col3_new_name");
        // drop column
        SchemaChange dropColumn = SchemaChange.dropColumn("col6");
        // update column comment
        SchemaChange updateColumnComment =
            SchemaChange.updateColumnComment(new String[] {"col4"}, "col4 field");
        // update nested column comment
        SchemaChange updateNestedColumnComment =
            SchemaChange.updateColumnComment(new String[] {"col5", "f1"}, "col5 f1 field");
        // update column type
        SchemaChange updateColumnType = SchemaChange.updateColumnType("col4", DataTypes.DOUBLE());
        // update column position, you need to pass in a parameter of type Move
        SchemaChange updateColumnPosition =
            SchemaChange.updateColumnPosition(SchemaChange.Move.first("col4"));
        // update column nullability
        SchemaChange updateColumnNullability =
            SchemaChange.updateColumnNullability(new String[] {"col4"}, false);
        // update nested column nullability
        SchemaChange updateNestedColumnNullability =
            SchemaChange.updateColumnNullability(new String[] {"col5", "f2"}, false);

        SchemaChange[] schemaChanges =
            new SchemaChange[] {
                addOption,
                removeOption,
                addColumn,
                addColumnAfterField,
                renameColumn,
                dropColumn,
                updateColumnComment,
                updateNestedColumnComment,
                updateColumnType,
                updateColumnPosition,
                updateColumnNullability,
                updateNestedColumnNullability
            };
        try {
            catalog.alterTable(identifier, Arrays.asList(schemaChanges), false);
        } catch (Catalog.TableNotExistException e) {
            // do something
        } catch (Catalog.ColumnAlreadyExistException e) {
            // do something
        } catch (Catalog.ColumnNotExistException e) {
            // do something
        }
    }
}

Table metadata:

  • name return a name string to identify this table.
  • rowType return the current row type of this table containing a sequence of table’s fields.
  • partitionKeys returns the partition keys of this table.
  • parimaryKeys returns the primary keys of this table.
  • options returns the configuration of this table in a map of key-value.
  • comment returns the optional comment of this table.
  • copy return a new table by applying dynamic options to this table.

Batch Read #

For relatively small amounts of data, or for data that has undergone projection and filtering, you can directly use a standalone program to read the table data.

But if the data volume of the table is relatively large, you can distribute splits to different tasks for reading.

The reading is divided into two stages:

  1. Scan Plan: Generate plan splits in a global node (‘Coordinator’, or named ‘Driver’).
  2. Read Split: Read split in distributed tasks.
import org.apache.paimon.data.InternalRow;
import org.apache.paimon.predicate.Predicate;
import org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder;
import org.apache.paimon.reader.RecordReader;
import org.apache.paimon.table.Table;
import org.apache.paimon.table.source.ReadBuilder;
import org.apache.paimon.table.source.Split;
import org.apache.paimon.table.source.TableRead;
import org.apache.paimon.types.DataTypes;
import org.apache.paimon.types.RowType;

import com.google.common.collect.Lists;

import java.util.List;

public class ReadTable {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        // 1. Create a ReadBuilder and push filter (`withFilter`)
        // and projection (`withProjection`) if necessary
        Table table = GetTable.getTable();

        PredicateBuilder builder =
            new PredicateBuilder(RowType.of(DataTypes.STRING(), DataTypes.INT()));
        Predicate notNull = builder.isNotNull(0);
        Predicate greaterOrEqual = builder.greaterOrEqual(1, 12);

        int[] projection = new int[] {0, 1};

        ReadBuilder readBuilder =
            table.newReadBuilder()
                .withProjection(projection)
                .withFilter(Lists.newArrayList(notNull, greaterOrEqual));

        // 2. Plan splits in 'Coordinator' (or named 'Driver')
        List<Split> splits = readBuilder.newScan().plan().splits();

        // 3. Distribute these splits to different tasks

        // 4. Read a split in task
        TableRead read = readBuilder.newRead();
        RecordReader<InternalRow> reader = read.createReader(splits);
        reader.forEachRemaining(System.out::println);
    }
}

Batch Write #

The writing is divided into two stages:

  1. Write records: Write records in distributed tasks, generate commit messages.
  2. Commit/Abort: Collect all CommitMessages, commit them in a global node (‘Coordinator’, or named ‘Driver’, or named ‘Committer’). When the commit fails for certain reason, abort unsuccessful commit via CommitMessages.
import org.apache.paimon.data.BinaryString;
import org.apache.paimon.data.GenericRow;
import org.apache.paimon.table.Table;
import org.apache.paimon.table.sink.BatchTableCommit;
import org.apache.paimon.table.sink.BatchTableWrite;
import org.apache.paimon.table.sink.BatchWriteBuilder;
import org.apache.paimon.table.sink.CommitMessage;

import java.util.List;

public class BatchWrite {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        // 1. Create a WriteBuilder (Serializable)
        Table table = GetTable.getTable();
        BatchWriteBuilder writeBuilder = table.newBatchWriteBuilder().withOverwrite();

        // 2. Write records in distributed tasks
        BatchTableWrite write = writeBuilder.newWrite();

        GenericRow record1 = GenericRow.of(BinaryString.fromString("Alice"), 12);
        GenericRow record2 = GenericRow.of(BinaryString.fromString("Bob"), 5);
        GenericRow record3 = GenericRow.of(BinaryString.fromString("Emily"), 18);

        write.write(record1);
        write.write(record2);
        write.write(record3);

        List<CommitMessage> messages = write.prepareCommit();

        // 3. Collect all CommitMessages to a global node and commit
        BatchTableCommit commit = writeBuilder.newCommit();
        commit.commit(messages);

        // Abort unsuccessful commit to delete data files
        // commit.abort(messages);
    }
}

Stream Read #

The difference of Stream Read is that StreamTableScan can continuously scan and generate splits.

StreamTableScan provides the ability to checkpoint and restore, which can let you save the correct state during stream reading.

import org.apache.paimon.data.InternalRow;
import org.apache.paimon.predicate.Predicate;
import org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder;
import org.apache.paimon.reader.RecordReader;
import org.apache.paimon.table.Table;
import org.apache.paimon.table.source.ReadBuilder;
import org.apache.paimon.table.source.Split;
import org.apache.paimon.table.source.StreamTableScan;
import org.apache.paimon.table.source.TableRead;
import org.apache.paimon.types.DataTypes;
import org.apache.paimon.types.RowType;

import com.google.common.collect.Lists;

import java.util.List;

public class StreamReadTable {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        // 1. Create a ReadBuilder and push filter (`withFilter`)
        // and projection (`withProjection`) if necessary
        Table table = GetTable.getTable();

        PredicateBuilder builder =
            new PredicateBuilder(RowType.of(DataTypes.STRING(), DataTypes.INT()));
        Predicate notNull = builder.isNotNull(0);
        Predicate greaterOrEqual = builder.greaterOrEqual(1, 12);

        int[] projection = new int[] {0, 1};

        ReadBuilder readBuilder =
            table.newReadBuilder()
                .withProjection(projection)
                .withFilter(Lists.newArrayList(notNull, greaterOrEqual));

        // 2. Plan splits in 'Coordinator' (or named 'Driver')
        StreamTableScan scan = readBuilder.newStreamScan();
        while (true) {
            List<Split> splits = scan.plan().splits();
            // Distribute these splits to different tasks

            Long state = scan.checkpoint();
            // can be restored in scan.restore(state) after fail over

            // 3. Read a split in task
            TableRead read = readBuilder.newRead();
            RecordReader<InternalRow> reader = read.createReader(splits);
            reader.forEachRemaining(System.out::println);

            Thread.sleep(1000);
        }
    }
}

Stream Write #

The difference of Stream Write is that StreamTableCommit can continuously commit.

Key points to achieve exactly-once consistency:

  • CommitUser represents a user. A user can commit multiple times. In distributed processing, you are expected to use the same commitUser.
  • Different applications need to use different commitUsers.
  • The commitIdentifier of StreamTableWrite and StreamTableCommit needs to be consistent, and the id needs to be incremented for the next committing.
  • When a failure occurs, if you still have uncommitted CommitMessages, please use StreamTableCommit#filterAndCommit to exclude the committed messages by commitIdentifier.
import org.apache.paimon.data.BinaryString;
import org.apache.paimon.data.GenericRow;
import org.apache.paimon.table.Table;
import org.apache.paimon.table.sink.CommitMessage;
import org.apache.paimon.table.sink.StreamTableCommit;
import org.apache.paimon.table.sink.StreamTableWrite;
import org.apache.paimon.table.sink.StreamWriteBuilder;

import java.util.List;

public class StreamWriteTable {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        // 1. Create a WriteBuilder (Serializable)
        Table table = GetTable.getTable();
        StreamWriteBuilder writeBuilder = table.newStreamWriteBuilder();

        // 2. Write records in distributed tasks
        StreamTableWrite write = writeBuilder.newWrite();
        // commitIdentifier like Flink checkpointId
        long commitIdentifier = 0;

        while (true) {
            GenericRow record1 = GenericRow.of(BinaryString.fromString("Alice"), 12);
            GenericRow record2 = GenericRow.of(BinaryString.fromString("Bob"), 5);
            GenericRow record3 = GenericRow.of(BinaryString.fromString("Emily"), 18);
            write.write(record1);
            write.write(record2);
            write.write(record3);
            List<CommitMessage> messages = write.prepareCommit(false, commitIdentifier);
            commitIdentifier++;

            // 3. Collect all CommitMessages to a global node and commit
            StreamTableCommit commit = writeBuilder.newCommit();
            commit.commit(commitIdentifier, messages);

            // 4. When failure occurs and you're not sure if the commit process is successful,
            //    you can use `filterAndCommit` to retry the commit process.
            //    Succeeded commits will be automatically skipped.
            /*
            Map<Long, List<CommitMessage>> commitIdentifiersAndMessages = new HashMap<>();
            commitIdentifiersAndMessages.put(commitIdentifier, messages);
            commit.filterAndCommit(commitIdentifiersAndMessages);
            */

            Thread.sleep(1000);
        }
    }
}

Data Types #

Java Paimon
boolean boolean
byte byte
short short
int int
long long
float float
double double
string org.apache.paimon.data.BinaryString
decimal org.apache.paimon.data.Decimal
timestamp org.apache.paimon.data.Timestamp
byte[] byte[]
array org.apache.paimon.data.InternalArray
map org.apache.paimon.data.InternalMap
InternalRow org.apache.paimon.data.InternalRow

Predicate Types #

SQL Predicate Paimon Predicate
and org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.And
or org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.Or
is null org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.IsNull
is not null org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.IsNotNull
in org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuildere.In
not in org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.NotIn
= org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.Equal
<> org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.NotEqual
< org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.LessThan
<= org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.LessOrEqual
> org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.GreaterThan
>= org.apache.paimon.predicate.PredicateBuilder.GreaterOrEqual